The former is one of honor and glory in life, incorruption, and immortality, while the latter is one of shame and condemnation, in corruption and mortality.
He revealed the manner in which Tolstoy rendered familiar concepts, like property ownership, unfamiliar by narrating events from the vantage point of a horse: For Shklovsky, literary works were not documents of social history or human psychology; they were neither comedies nor tragedies.
Instead, they were best understood as language experiments devised to tactically derange our notions of life and of literature.
To everyone except writers of fiction and poetry, this position sounds distressingly inhuman, painfully mechanical, regrettably ahistorical, perhaps even philosophically bogus. And indeed, these are some of the very charges that have been leveled against Formalist poetics from the start.
But we should remember that Shklovsky attributed a deeply humane and benevolent purpose to the virtuosic machinery of literature: For many North American readers, this is the Shklovsky we know, a Shklovsky we remember, a literary insurrectionist who resides, under lock and key, in a narrow chamber of the past.
Although Shklovsky lived through both World Wars, endured two periods of punitive exile, and survived into his nineties—working steadily all the while—he essentially disappeared from view.
Much of his work sat relatively idle for years, awaiting publication outside the Soviet Union. For all intents and purposes, Shklovsky has remained under intellectual quarantine, marooned on an island gulag, a casualty of Cold-War power politics that essentially retarded the course of his career and limited his role on the world stage of literary criticism and theory.
On the Dissimilarity of the Similar have all been published in the last decade. And we greet the arrival of these works with joy, gratitude and some trepidation, as if we were welcoming home a family member long absent due to calamity, presumed dead: Bowstring was first published inand the Shklovsky writing this work bears a passing resemblance to the one we remember.
But deep changes have been wrought in the man, and the book reads as a revision, inclining to a recantation, of several of his most influential ideas. The text is strange: However, for anyone interested in the legacy of Formalism—which includes everything that we conceive of as craft instruction in creative writing—the publication of this book is profoundly consequential.
Further, in aggregate, the work is a manifesto of sorts—a little wistful, a bit opaque—about the purpose and processes of literature. This alone suggests that readers of every stripe should consult Bowstring.
The book allows us to take the measure of latter-day Formalism, and, like all great books, it takes the measure of us. Perhaps Shklovsky feels that clarification is unnecessary, but he also chooses not to prosecute this disagreement in a linear and explicit fashion.
Rather, Shklovsky counters Tolstoy whom he reveres, naturally, as an artist and countryman by indirection; he mounts a cumulative assault that emerges as he careers idiosyncratically through the annals of world literature.
But in the second half of the book, the fireworks start to fly, the cannons boom, and we better understand the rhyme and reason of Bowstring. He discusses fairy tales and parables, Shakespeare and Pushkin, ancient Hindu sacred narratives, and he also comments on techniques in painting and cinema.
Lenin, reading Hegel, and of Tolstoy, on Shakespeare. The course of a page might span centuries and continents, and thus, the writer often articulates his conclusions arcanely, and not always convincingly.
Shylock is a villain to Shakespeare. In this run of paragraphs, Shklovsky skips from Othello to The Merchant of Venice to, eventually, Romeo and Juliet, only grazing the evidence that shores up his assessment.
His compositional method is one of willful juxtaposition, strategically withholding the connective tissue that binds the observations together in the manner of a conventional argument. He stacks his observations side by side, rapidly shifting the focus, often requiring readers to infer the connections—rather like a man laying out cards in a game of Solitaire.
Near the end of Bowstring, he summarizes his position plainly: However, readers are richly compensated for their pains as virtually every page of Bowstring contains a radiant apothegm, a one-sentence koan of arresting power.
Trees bloom one after the other, nightingales sing and crows caw. Someone even heard the blackbirds. They imitate other birds. The nightingales are still on their way. But Shklovsky himself acknowledges that this is hardly new, and in fact, Bowstring ultimately proffers conclusions that seem eerily familiar.
For example, Shklovsky cites Heraclitus, offering a glimpse of his position regarding the interpretation of individual works: Shklovsky and Brooks are unlikely bedfellows, even now, and Shklovsky does add some new wrinkles to this theoretical position.
Shklovsky argues, albeit obliquely, that art evolves through a process of generic mutation: He notes the way the love poem draws on the conventions of classical rhetoric to find its form, producing an unusual combination, a linguistic fusion of the public and the private, the impersonal and the personal, the high and the low, the old and the new.
Shklovsky summarizes his assessment: However, Shklovsky discusses very candidly the faulty premises on which he had founded his interpretive house. Sterne, Tolstoy were trying to return the sensation of what?
Shklovsky reflects on his early work and renders an unequivocal verdict:Acknowledgments.
Essay Henry David Thoreau's Statement on the Classics in Walden - Henry David Thoreau's Statement on the Classics in Walden In the novel Walden, Henry David Thoreau states that the classics are the noblest recorded thoughts of man. He also believed that the written word is . "I wouldn't want to be kept alive that way" has become a modern motto in American society. (66) Teno and Lynn, (67) This argument is well developed by J. David Velleman, "Against the Right to Die," Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 17 (): () President's Commission, CHAPTER 5 - THE ETHICAL DEBATE. appeared at the end of two rejected manuscript sion to Emerson’s ﬁrst public statement against leaves (ca. the ﬁctitious England in and enduring Him forever. in its giving of outer detail.
This study addresses Thoreau from an unusual vantage point. As a historian and philosopher of science, I note that my own discipline has paid scant attention to him, but here I wish to claim Thoreau—or, better, to “borrow” him. Full text of "Transcendental writers and heroes: papers chiefly on Emerson, Thoreau, literary friends, and contemporaries, with regional and critical backgrounds" See other formats.
There is another argument against universalism that could be simply expressed, but which deserves a more thorough treatment. Indeed, I have already written about it, and would love for you to consider reading this article through, as it presents an important argument for conditionalism, that is simultaneously an argument against other views.
Walden Study Guide - 1 - "SPRING" Thoreau exults: "Walden was dead and is alive again." This chapter offers us much to think about, notably in the section where he meditates on It is a striking example of Thoreau's faith in universal wholeness.
"CONCLUSION" Thoreau sums up: he tells why he left the lake and what he. Cathy needs to stay awake to study for her psychology midterm, so she decides to take an amphetamine to keep from falling asleep.
The social problems associated with the Prohibition era have often been cited as an argument against A. prevention programs for drug abuse Drugs and Behavior chapter 1.
92 terms. Drugs & Behavior Ch. 1. My First Job by Steven Axelrod Salesmen Wanted. It was the summer of and Manhattan was molten in the summer heat. The air wavered over the softening asphalt and walking the furnace streets I felt like I’d been dipped in grease and dredged in grit.