Malinowski saw himself as effecting a revolution in anthropology by rejecting the evolutionary paradigm of his predecessors and introducing functionalism, whereby institutions satisfied human biological needs, as the way to understand other cultures. His lasting legacy, however, is methodological rather than theoretical. It was by exhorting anthropologists to give up their comfortable position on the veranda of the missionary compound or government station and to go and live and work with the people they studied that he effected his real innovation.
It first appears sporadically in the scholarly Latin anthropologia of Renaissance France, where it spawns the French word anthropologie, transferred into English as anthropology. It does belong to a class of words produced with the -logy suffix, such as archeo-logy, bio-logy, etc.
The mixed character of Greek anthropos and Latin -logia marks it as New Latin. He did find an anthropologos from Aristotle in the standard ancient Greek Lexiconwhich he says defines the word as "speaking or treating of man".
The lack of any ancient denotation of anthropology, however, is not an etymological problem. Liddell and Scott list Greek compounds ending in —logia, enough to justify its later use as a productive suffix.
The thing collected is primarily ideas, especially in speech. The American Heritage Dictionary says: Such an identification is speculative, depending on the theorist's view of anthropology; nevertheless, speculations have been formulated by credible anthropologists, especially those that consider themselves functionalists and others in history so classified now.
The science of history[ edit ] Marvin Harrisa historian of anthropology, begins The Rise of Anthropological Theory with the statement that anthropology is "the science of history". He is using "history" in a special sense, as the founders of cultural anthropology used it: It includes both documented history and prehistory, but its slant is toward institutional development rather than particular non-repeatable historical events.
According to Harris, the 19th-century anthropologists were theorizing under the presumption that the development of society followed some sort of laws. He decries the loss of that view in the 20th century by the denial that any laws are discernable or that current institutions have any bearing on ancient.
He coins the term ideographic for them. The 19th-century views, on the other hand, are nomothetic ; that is, they provide laws. He intends "to reassert the methodological priority of the search for the laws of history in the science of man".
The Struggle for a Science of Culture. Elsewhere he refers to "my theories of historical determinism", defining the latter: Different philosophers, however, use determinism in different senses. The deterministic element that Harris sees is lack of human social engineering: When they act in society, they do so according to the laws of history, of which they are not aware; hence, there is no historical element of free will.
Like the 20th-century anthropologists in general, Harris places a high value on the empiricism, or collection of data. This function must be performed by trained observers. He borrows terms from linguistics: Only trained observers can avoid eticism, or description without regard to the meaning in the culture: Diachronic "through time" data shows the development of lines through time.
Cultural materialism, being a "processually holistic and globally comparative scientific research strategy" must depend for accuracy on all four types of data. Different material factors produce different cultures.
Harris, like many other anthropologists, in looking for anthropological method and data before the use of the term anthropology, had little difficulty finding them among the ancient authors. The ancients tended to see players on the stage of history as ethnic groups characterized by the same or similar languages and customs: Thus the term history meant to a large degree the "story" of the fortunes of these players through time.
The ancient authors never formulated laws. Apart from a rudimentary three-age systemthe stages of history, such as are found in Lubbock, Tylor, Morgan, Marx and others, are yet unformulated. Proto-anthropology[ edit ] Eriksen and Nielsen use the term proto-anthropology to refer to near-anthropological writings, which contain some of the criteria for being anthropology, but not all.Magic, Science and Religion and other essays by Bronislaw Malinowski with an introduction by ROBERT REDFIELD.
Religion can be explained as a relationship between human beings and a power (supernatural). This relationship includes beliefs, practices, customs, usually involves devotional and ritual observances. History of anthropology in this article refers primarily to the 18th- and 19th-century precursors of modern anthropology.
The term anthropology itself, innovated as a New Latin scientific word during the Renaissance, has always meant "the study (or science) of man".The topics to be included and the terminology have varied historically. At present they are more elaborate than they were during.
Social anthropology is the dominant constituent of anthropology throughout the United Kingdom and Commonwealth and much of Europe (France in particular), where it is distinguished from cultural anthropology. In the United States, social anthropology is commonly subsumed within cultural anthropology (or under the relatively new designation of sociocultural anthropology).
Magic, Science and Religion and Other Essays has ratings and 18 reviews. Maria said: For Social Anthropology (core requirement), Winter /5.
Magic, Science, and Religion; Culture and the Individual. Bronislaw Malinowski by Chris Holdsworth. LAST REVIEWED: 29 June by Polish and English authors presented at Jagiellonian University in to celebrate the centenary of Malinowski’s birth.
The papers focus on the Polish roots of his personal and intellectual . Most cultures exhibit a particular configuration or style. A single value or pattern of perceiving the world often leaves its stamp on several institutions in the society.