Moscow and only properly made Emperor by Papal coronation, with all its expressed and implied conditions, not surprisingly was soon shown to be wielding a fatally compromised and fading form of power. In the treatment here, "Francia" will mean all of Europe that in the Mediaeval period was subject to the Roman Catholic Church, with its Latin liturgy, headed by the Popethe Bishop of Rome. Since the Pope retained the right to crown Emperors in the area subject to his Church, the Emperors in Charlemagne's line retained an implicit primacy, if not sovereignty, over all of Roman Catholic Europe, however little actual authority they may have exercised.
In disposition Alexander bore little resemblance to his soft-hearted, liberal father, and still less to his refined, philosophic, sentimental, chivalrous, yet cunning great-uncle, Emperor Alexander Iwho could have been given the title of "the first gentleman of Europe ". Although an enthusiastic amateur musician and patron of the balletAlexander was seen as lacking refinement and elegance.
Indeed, he rather relished the idea of being of the same rough texture as some of his subjects. His straightforward, abrupt manner savoured sometimes of gruffness, while his direct, unadorned method of expressing himself harmonized well with his rough-hewn, immobile features and somewhat sluggish movements.
His education was not such as to soften these peculiarities. A sebaceous cyst on the left side of his nose caused him to be mocked by some of his contemporaries, and he sat for photographs and portraits with the right side of his face most prominent. I was struck by the size of the man, and although cumbersome and heavy, he was still a mighty figure.
There was indeed something of the muzhik [Russian peasant] about him. The look of his bright eyes made quite an impression on me. As he passed where I was standing, he raised his head for a second, and to this day I can remember what I felt as our eyes met. It was a look as cold as steel, in which there was something threatening, even frightening, and it struck me like a blow.
The look of a man who stood above all others, but who carried a monstrous burden and who every minute had to fear for his life and the lives of those closest to him. In later years I came into contact with the Emperor on several occasions, and I felt not the slightest bit timid.
Education[ edit ] Though he was destined to be a strongly counter-reforming emperor, Alexander had little prospect of succeeding to the throne during the first two decades of his life, as he had an elder brother, Nicholaswho seemed of robust constitution.
Great solicitude was devoted to the education of Nicholas as tsesarevichwhereas Alexander received only the training of an ordinary Grand Duke of that period. This included acquaintance with FrenchEnglish and Germanand military drill.
On the left of the dais can be seen his young son and heir, the Tsesarevich Nicholasand behind Nicholas can be seen a young Grand Duke George. While he was heir apparent from to Alexander did not play a prominent part in public affairs, but allowed it to become known that he had ideas which did not coincide with the principles of the existing government.
Reign[ edit ] On 1 March O. As a result, he ascended to the Russian imperial throne in Nennal on 13 March He made it clear that his autocracy would not be limited.
The new Emperor believed that remaining true to Russian Orthodoxy, Autocracy, and Nationality the ideology introduced by his grandfather, emperor Nicholas I would save Russia from revolutionary agitation. He attempted to realize this by the institution of mandatory teaching of the Russian language throughout the empire, including to his GermanPolishand other non-Russian subjects with the exception of the Finnsby the patronization of Eastern Orthodoxyby the destruction of the remnants of German, Polish, and Swedish institutions in the respective provinces, and by the weakening of Judaism through persecution of the Jews.
The latter policy was implemented in the " May Laws " ofwhich banned Jews from inhabiting rural areas and shtetls even within the Pale of Settlement and restricted the occupations in which they could engage. Other conservative advisors included Count D.
Tolstoy minister of education, and later of internal affairs and I. Mikhail Katkov and other journalists supported the emperor in his autocracy. The famine of — and the ensuing cholera epidemic permitted some liberal activity, as the Russian government could not cope with the crisis and had to allow zemstvos to help with relief among others, Tolstoy helped organize soup-kitchens, and Chekhov directed anti-cholera precautions in several villages.
Foreign policy of the Russian Empire In foreign affairs Alexander III was a man of peace, but not at any price, and held that the best means of averting war is to be well-prepared for it.
Diplomat Nikolay Girsscion of a rich and powerful family of Scandinavian descent, served as his Foreign Minister,and established the peaceful policies for which Alexander has been given credit. Girs was an architect of the Franco-Russian Alliance ofwhich was later expanded into the Triple Entente with the addition of Great Britain.
Girs was in charge of a diplomacy that featured numerous negotiated settlements, treaties and conventions. These agreements defined Russian boundaries and restored equilibrium to dangerously unstable situations.
The most dramatic success came insettling long-standing tensions with Great Britain, which was fearful that Russian expansion to the South would be a threat to India. His Russia fought no wars.
Despite chilly relations with Berlin, the Tsar nevertheless confined himself to keeping a large number of troops near the German frontier. With regard to Bulgaria he exercised similar self-control.
The efforts of Prince Alexander and afterwards of Stambolov to destroy Russian influence in the principality roused his indignation, but he vetoed all proposals to intervene by force of arms. His reign cannot be regarded as an eventful period of Russian history ; but under his hard rule the country made considerable progress.Alexander II vs Alexander III Economic Changes Alexander III: Reduced the Tax burden on peasants.
Established the Peasant Land Bank, which offered loans to Peasants to help increase their land size. Offered financial incentives for peasants to . COMPARATIVE ESSAY BETWEEN ALEXANDER II AND III Tsar Alexander II and III while father and son had very different ambitions as Tsar and .
Compare and contrast the social and economic policies of Alexander II () and Alexander III () of Russia. Alexander II and Alexander III were both Tsars of Russia and they both believed in the divine will to rule the people.
Compare and contrast Alexander II and Alexander III. 7 July Compare and contrast Alexander II and Alexander III. or any similar topic specifically for you. Do Not Waste Your Time. HIRE WRITER. was a tough time for Alexander II to take the throne. Russia was in the middle of a costly war which they were losing, liberals were.
Comparing Alexander II and Alexander III Essay Sample Compare and contrast the social and economic policies of Alexander II () and Alexander III () of Russia.
Alexander II and Alexander III were both Tsars of Russia and they both believed in the divine will to rule the people. Recent Additions. Essay on Man by Alexander Pope. EPISTLE III: Of the Nature and State of Man, With Respect to Society ARGUMENT.
I. The whole Universe one system of Society.