Essays in the economic and social history of south yorkshire

Bibliography Social Grievances Inthe workers were given their freedom in which they were to be paid for their work and given land. However, the organisation of such freedom continued to disadvantage workers, who were to pay significant taxes on their land. The fact that the peasantry made up such a large portion of society meant that they had power in numbers if they ever sought to take action.

Essays in the economic and social history of south yorkshire

During these years, the nation was transformed from an underdeveloped nation of farmers and frontiersmen into an urbanized economic powerhouse.

Essays in the economic and social history of south yorkshire

As the industrialized North and the agricultural South grew further apart, five major trends dominated American economic, social, and political life during this period. First, the Market Revolution—the shift from an agricultural economy to one based on wages and the exchange of goods and services—completely changed the northern and western economy between and After Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin and perfected manufacturing with interchangeable parts, the North experienced a manufacturing boom that continued well into the next century.

Internal improvements such as the Erie Canal and the Cumberland Road, combined with new modes of transportation such as the steamboat and railroad, allowed goods and crops to flow easily and cheaply between the agricultural West and manufacturing North.

The growth of manufacturing also spawned the wage labor system. Second, American society urbanized drastically during this era. The United States had been a land comprised almost entirely of farmers, but aroundmillions of people began to move to the cities.

They, along with several million Irish and German immigrants, flooded northern cities to find jobs in the new industrial economy.

Essays in the economic and social history of south yorkshire

Comprised mostly of white-collar workers and skilled laborers, this growing middle class became the driving force behind a variety of reform movements. Among these were movements to reduce consumption of alcohol, eliminate prostitution, improve prisons and insane asylums, improve education, and ban slavery.

Religious revivalism, resulting from the Second Great Awakening, also had a large impact on American life in all parts of the country.

Inspired by the old Democratic-Republicans, John C. Others, such as President Andrew Jackson and Chief Justice John Marshall, believed that the federal government had authority over the states. The debate came to a head in the Nullification Crisis of —, which nearly touched off a civil war.

Between andmore and more northerners came to realize the horrors and injustices of slavery, while southerners grew increasingly reliant upon it to support their cotton-based economy.

Northerners did not necessarily want social and political equality for blacks; they sought merely their emancipation.

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The debate in politics centered primarily on the westward expansion of slavery, which southern elites saw as vital to the survival of their aristocratic social and economic order.

Others vehemently opposed the expansion of slavery outside the South. The debate was critical in the Missouri crisis, the annexation of Texas, and after the Mexican War.

Finally, the issue of westward expansion itself had a profound effect on American politics and society during the antebellum years. In the wake of the War ofmany nationalistic Americans believed that God intended for them to spread democracy and Protestantism across the entire continent.

Policymakers capitalized on public sentiment to acquire Florida and Oregon and declared war on Mexico in to seize Texas, California, and everything in between. Ultimately, these trends irreconcilably split the North from the South.

The Market Revolution, wage labor, improved transportation, social reforms, and growing middle class of the North all clashed with the deep-seated, almost feudal social hierarchies of the South. Each successive debate on slavery and westward expansion drove the regions further apart until finally, in the s, the North and the South were two wildly different places, culturally, socially, and economically.Page 3 of 24 Introduction This case study focuses on the costs of the environmental and social effects of coal mining in South Africa, undertaken for export to the Netherlands.

The middle colonies remained more tolerant of nonconformity than New England and the South. Pennsylvania grew rapidly. German farmers, mostly from the Rhine region, settled in the countryside of Pennsylvania, establishing prosperous farms and the industries of . An Anglo economic, social, and political elite had emerged by the s, and many descendants of Acadians in south Louisiana increasingly adopted their values and outlook.

Slavery had an overwhelming impact on the economy, politics, and society of the United States during the first sixty years of the nineteenth century.

The early pioneering studies of both Chartism and trade unionism presented a picture of two very separate almost hermetic movements.1More recently it has . economic policy terrain in post-apartheid South Africa though, has been the impact of this consistently positive growth performance on social welfare, specifically income poverty and inequality.


Holmes, Colin - Staff - History - The University of Sheffield