Earth and Earth science View of the Earthtaken in by the crew of Apollo Earth is the only planet known to support life, and its natural features are the subject of many fields of scientific research. Within the solar systemit is third closest to the sun; it is the largest terrestrial planet and the fifth largest overall. Its most prominent climatic features are its two large polar regions, two relatively narrow temperate zones, and a wide equatorial tropical to subtropical region.
Before Darwin[ edit ] The word homo, the name of the biological genus to which humans belong, is Latin for "human". It was chosen originally by Carl Linnaeus in his classification system.
The word "human" is from the Latin humanus, the adjectival form of homo.
Darwin[ edit ] The possibility of linking humans with earlier apes by descent became clear only after with the publication of Charles Darwin 's On the Origin of Speciesin which he argued for the idea of the evolution of new species from earlier ones.
Darwin's book did not address the question of human evolution, saying only that "Light will be thrown on the origin of man and his history. Huxley argued for human evolution from apes by illustrating many of the similarities and differences between humans and apes, and did so particularly in his book Evidence as to Man's Place in Nature.
However, many of Darwin's early supporters such as Alfred Russel Wallace and Charles Lyell did not initially agree that the origin of the mental capacities and the moral sensibilities of humans could be explained by natural selectionthough this later changed.
Darwin applied the theory of evolution and sexual selection to humans when he published The Descent of Man in Neanderthal remains were discovered in a limestone quarry inthree years before the publication of On the Origin of Species, and Neanderthal fossils had been discovered in Gibraltar even earlier, but it was originally claimed that these were human remains of a creature suffering some kind of illness.
The child's remains were a remarkably well-preserved tiny skull and an endocast of the brain. Also, the specimen showed short canine teethand the position of the foramen magnum the hole in the skull where the spine enters was evidence of bipedal locomotion.
All of these traits convinced Dart that the Taung Child was a bipedal human ancestor, a transitional form between apes and humans. During the s and s, hundreds of fossils were found in East Africa in the regions of the Olduvai Gorge and Lake Turkana. The driving force of these searches was the Leakey family, with Louis Leakey and his wife Mary Leakeyand later their son Richard and daughter-in-law Meave —all successful and world-renowned fossil hunters and paleoanthropologists.
From the fossil beds of Olduvai and Lake Turkana they amassed specimens of the early hominins: These finds cemented Africa as the cradle of humankind. In the late s and the s, Ethiopia emerged as the new hot spot of paleoanthropology after "Lucy"the most complete fossil member of the species Australopithecus afarensiswas found in by Donald Johanson near Hadar in the desertic Afar Triangle region of northern Ethiopia.
Although the specimen had a small brain, the pelvis and leg bones were almost identical in function to those of modern humans, showing with certainty that these hominins had walked erect.
White in the s, including Ardipithecus ramidus and Ardipithecus kadabba. The skeletal anatomy combines primitive features known from australopithecines with features known from early hominins.
The individuals show signs of having been deliberately disposed of within the cave near the time of death. The fossils were dated close toyears ago,  and thus are not a direct ancestor but a contemporary with the first appearance of larger-brained anatomically modern humans.
By constructing a calibration curve of the ID of species' pairs with known divergence times in the fossil record, the data could be used as a molecular clock to estimate the times of divergence of pairs with poorer or unknown fossil records.
In their seminal paper in ScienceSarich and Wilson estimated the divergence time of humans and apes as four to five million years ago,  at a time when standard interpretations of the fossil record gave this divergence as at least 10 to as much as 30 million years.
Subsequent fossil discoveries, notably "Lucy", and reinterpretation of older fossil materials, notably Ramapithecusshowed the younger estimates to be correct and validated the albumin method.
On the basis of a separation from the orangutan between 10 and 20 million years ago, earlier studies of the molecular clock suggested that there were about 76 mutations per generation that were not inherited by human children from their parents; this evidence supported the divergence time between hominins and chimps noted above.
However, a study in Iceland of 78 children and their parents suggests a mutation rate of only 36 mutations per generation; this datum extends the separation between humans and chimps to an earlier period greater than 7 million years ago Ma.
Additional research with offspring of wild chimp populations in 8 locations suggests that chimps reproduce at age And these data suggest that Ardipithecus 4. Furthermore, analysis of the two species' genes in provides evidence that after human ancestors had started to diverge from chimpanzees, interspecies mating between "proto-human" and "proto-chimps" nonetheless occurred regularly enough to change certain genes in the new gene pool: A new comparison of the human and chimp genomes suggests that after the two lineages separated, they may have begun interbreeding A principal finding is that the X chromosomes of humans and chimps appear to have diverged about 1.
There were in fact two splits between the human and chimp lineages, with the first being followed by interbreeding between the two populations and then a second split. The suggestion of a hybridization has startled paleoanthropologistswho nonetheless are treating the new genetic data seriously.
InMeave Leakey discovered Australopithecus anamensis. The find was overshadowed by Tim D. White's discovery of Ardipithecus ramidus, which pushed back the fossil record to 4.
InMartin Pickford and Brigitte Senut discovered, in the Tugen Hills of Kenyaa 6-million-year-old bipedal hominin which they named Orrorin tugenensis.The way people meet their partners has changed dramatically in recent years For more than 50 years, researchers have studied the nature of the networks that link people to each other.
How has the human brain evolved over the years? —Emma Schachner, Salt Lake City. John Hawks, a professor of anthropology at the University of Wisconsin–Madison, answers. Humans are known for.
The Human Factor: Revolutionizing the Way People Live with Technology [Kim Vicente] on plombier-nemours.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. In this incessantly readable, groundbreaking work, Vincente makes vividly clear how we can bridge the widening gap between people and technology.
He investigates every level of human activity - from simple matters such as our hand-eye coordination to . Aristotle on Technology and Nature Joachim Schummer [Published in Philosophia Naturalis, 38 (), ].
Abstract: Due to the rapid development and ubiquitous impact of modern technology, many people feel that nature is in danger of becoming plombier-nemours.com the 13th century until today, philosophers and theologians have been seeking advice from Aristotle to define both nature and technology.
The Artificial Ape: How Technology Changed the Course of Human Evolution (MacSci) [Timothy Taylor] on plombier-nemours.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. A breakthrough theory that tools and technology are the real drivers of human evolution Although humans are one of the great apes.
Chapter 3: THE NATURE OF TECHNOLOGY.
As long as there have been people, there has been technology. Indeed, the techniques of shaping tools are taken as the chief evidence of the beginning of human .